Screen line

An imaginary line drawn across part of a traffic study area, across which the total number of movements of any particular kind are determined, in order to check the estimated traffic flows across same line.


Sea levelThe mean surface elevation of the sea, normally excluding transient changes induced by tides, atmospheric pressure, upwelling and water influx.

Secondary work

Any other work or secondary work was reckoned only if the person was engaged in some economically productive work. Workers could be fulltime workers or seasonal workers or marginal workers.

Sectoral plan

It deals individually with the functional sectors of economic and social activities such as agriculture, health, industry, education and transportation. In such a plan, existing facilities in each sector, their capacity and use, travel, behavior, locational preference and numerous other kinds of information are considered specifically.

Semi detached building

A building detached on three sides with open spaces.


Semi Pucca

A semi-pucca structure is one which could not treated as wholly pucca or wholly kutcha.

Sensitive groups

 Sensitive groups (also called at-risk populations) - A term used for a category of persons at increased risk of experiencing adverse health effects related to air pollution exposures. These groups can be at increased risk due to intrinsic factors (biological), extrinsic factors (external, non-biological), higher exposure, and/or increased dose at a given concentration. The severity of the health effects that these groups experience may be much greater than in the general population.

Service lanes

Service lanes are roads provided adjacent to major roads on both sides. They will be connected with the major road once in a kilometer or so. This is to control the access to major roads so that thorough traffic is not disturbed much.

Set back line

A line usually parallel to the plot boundaries or centre line of a road and laid down in each case by the authority or as per recommendations of the Master or Zonal Plan, beyond which nothing can be constructed toward the plot boundaries, excepting with the permission of the authority

Setback (land use)


 The minimum distance to which a building must be set back from a street, road or natural feature.


An establishment having specific location and occupying fixed and definite positions on the earth surface.


The effluent in a sewer network.

SewerThe conduit in a subterranean network used to carry off water and waste matter.


Sewerage system

It is the network system of sewers in a city or town or locality.


Woody, semi woody or herbaceous perennial plants, branches arise from the base of the plants and grow upto a height of about 0.5 to 4 mts. The plants are usually small and straight bushes like but some are recumbent or prostrate.


Woody, semi woody or herbaceous perennial plants, branches arise from the base of the plants and grow upto a height of about 0.5 to 4 mts. The plants are usually small and straight bushes like but some are recumbent or prostrate.


Sibling Species

 species so similar to each other as to be difficult to distinguish by human observer.


Land (that could be) made suitable for building purposes by dividing into lots, laying out streets and providing facilities.

Site and services

The subdivision of urban land and the provision of services for residential use and complimentary commercial use. Site and services projects are aimed to improve the housing conditions of the low income groups of the population by providing (a) Site : the access to a piece of land where people can build their own dwelling. (b) Services : the opportunity of access to employment, utilities, service and community facilities, financing and communications.



It is the population and physical extent of a city.

Sky Condition

 Sky Condition are usually described in terms of presence or absence of Clouds.

Sky View Factor

 Area of the sky that can be seen from a point on a surface.


An area in which the narrowness, closeness, and bad arrangement or design, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation facilities, or any combination of this factors are detrimental to safety, health or morals.


Smart city


 Similar to the conscious city, the smart city uses data collection to gain information about its residents in order to manage the city effectively. Has the potential to vastly improve how we live, but also sounds like a Black Mirror episode.

Sodium adsorption ratio

A measure of soil alkalinity, calculated by dividing the content of exchangeable sodium by the square root of the sum of exchangeable calcium and magnesium.


Soil texture

The relative proportions of sand (2.0 - 0.05 mm diameter), silt (0.05 - 0.002mm) and clay (<0.002 mm) in soil.


Solar Access

 Its the amount of a sites exposure to the sun during a given period. 

Solar Altitude AngleThe vertical angle at the point of observation between the horizon plane and the line connecting the sun with the observer.


Solar Azimuth Angle

The angle at the point of observation measured on a horizontal plane between the northerly direction and a point on the horizontal circle where it is intersected by the arc vertical circle, going through the zenith and the sun's position.


Solar Chart

A circular diagram prepared individually for each geographical latitude showing the path of the sun projected on a plane in a form which enables the altitude and azimuth to be read off directly for the month, date and time required.

Solar Envelope

The maximum volume of an object, typically a building, such that it will not cast a shadow upon a given space at a tool in urban planning to ensure solar access.

Solar Rights of A Building or an Urban Space

A legal guarantee of exposure to direct sunlight in a predetermined period, typically several hours each day during winter.

Space Mean speed

It is the average of the speed measurements at an instant of time over a space.


The distance between successive vehicles in a traffic stream measured form front bumper .

Special purpose Plan

To identify the needs of the special areas which require special plan within the framework of the development plan.


Speed is the rate of movement of traffic or a specified component of traffic and is expressed in metric unit or kilometer per hour.


Spray Irrigation

 Pre-treated septage is pumped at 80 to 100 psi through nozzles and sprayed directly onto the land. spray irrigation can be used on steep or rough land and minimizes disturbances to the soil by trucks.

State Highway

They are the other main trunk or arterial roads of a state, connecting up with national headquarters and important cities within the state.

Street LightingIllumination to improve vision at night for security and for the extension of activities




Exactly what it sounds like. The science of strolling. Not just through beautiful meadows but through the reality of our cities, full of grey fields, boom burbs and Brusselization.

Sub Arterial street

Provide access to adjoining areas and are used for parking, loading, unloading , are usually restricted and regulated.

Subsistence Agriculture

 Farming at a level at which only enough food is produced to meet immediate local needs.


Suburb are the compactly developed or developing areas surrounding the central city in a metropolitan area. There is normally no identifiable boundary between city and suburb, the city merges gradually into the suburb without an appreciable break in physical aspects.


Drainage or refuge especially from a house, farm, yard or street


SullageDrainage or refuge especially from a house, farm, yard or street


Sustainable Development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromissing the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.



The co-dependence of city-states under one leader.


It is a set of interconnected part or elements having a regularity or relationship and interdependency between each other. The interdependency between each other. The functioning of the whole complex is called system.