RADPFI: Rural Area Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (RADPFI) Guidelines 

Rainwater harvesting

Water in the atmosphere can be tapped through the condensation of mist or air moisture of through ran-catchment. The former sources have proved feasible where other sources are not available. The interception of rainwater before it reaches the ground has the advantage that the water may collect with minimum contamination. The amount of water, which can be collected, is determined by the amount of rainfall and the size of the collection area. Rainwater can be harvested on roof or ground. Contamination with bird droppings, dust and other deposits on the roof can be overcome by the installation of simple devices to separate the first flush of water from remainder to be stored. Ground catchments are ideal for collecting surface run-off which require a degree of protection to prevent gross pollution of the water.


Rate of flow

It represents the number of vehicles passing a point during a time interval less than one hour but expressed as an equivalent hourly rate.

Recalcitrant Seed

 Seed that does not survive drying and freezing.


This refers to the increase in the floor space area of a portion to accommodate additional population for residential purposes or other urban activities as a part of the urban redevelopment or renewal
programmes for the city or the area. Often the process is applied to under-utilised segments of the inner city to limit the horizontal expansion of the city and maximise the utlisation of available infrastructure.


Region is a continuos and localise intermediate area between national and urban lands. An area including one or more countries which contain certain geographical, economic and social characteristics in common.


Regional Plan

To identify the region and regional resources for development within which settlement (urban and rural) plan to be prepared and regulated by District planning committee.

Regional PlanningIt is the process of formulation and clarifying social objectives in the ordering of activities in supra-urban space.


Remote sensing

Remote sensing: Detection or measurement of a property of a medium like atmosphere such as temperature, concentration of pollutants, etc. For example, using Radar, rain can be detected or using Laser beam, concentration of pollutants can be measured along the path of the beam by analysing the scattered radiation from the beam. This is in contrast to in situ sampling or measurement where the sensor measures the property in the immediate vicinity of the sensor.

Renewable resourcesResources that are replenished through relatively rapid natural cycles.


Renewable Water

 The surface water runoff from local precipitation, the inflow from the other regions and the groundwater recharge that replenishes aquifers.

Reserved forest

Those forest areas, which are to be censured to attain physical and climatic balance of the country. No permission for any activities are allowed there



Includes the use for human habitation of any land or buildings or part thereof including gardens, grounds, garrage, stables and out-houses if any, appertaining to such building.

Residential density

Residential or housing density is the variously expressed in numbers of dwellings, households, habitable rooms or persons per acre or hectare.

Residential flatResidential accommodation for one family (one household) which may occur as part of group housing or independently.


Resilient city

Resilient cities are cities that have the ability to absorb, recover and prepare for future shocks (economic, environmental, social & institutional). Resilient citiespromote sustainable development, well-being and inclusive growth. The OECD is investigating how citiescan increase their resilience.

Resilient City

 A Resilient City is one that has developed capacities to help absorb future shocks and stresses to its social, economic, and technical systems and infrastructures so as to still be able to maintain essentially the same functions, structures, systems, and identity.


That upon which one relies for aid, support or supply/ means to attain given ends of the capacity to take advantage of opportunities or to extricate oneself from difficulties.



The process of restoration is a highly specialized operation. Its aim is to preserve and reveal the aesthetic and historic value of the monument and based on respect for original material and authentic documents.


This refers to the development process applied to alter the existing structure of an area for improved functional efficiency and / or image. The restructuring process may not necessarily demand extensive interventions to alter the structure, but generally involves sensitive relocation of uses and reorientation of functional networks within and outside the area.

Retail Warehouse Park

An organized development of at least three retail warehouse (defined as single-storey retail units of at least 10,000 sq. ft. or 930 sq. m) totaling at least 50,000 sq. ft. (46,000 sq. m) of gross lettable area.

Ribbon Development

The process of urban sprawl along the main roads leading from a built-up area. Within urban areas the term refers to commercials strips along roads.

Ribbon development:

  When developments occur alongside a ribbon, usually main roads and railway stations. Leads to urban sprawl

Ridge and Furrow Irrigation

 In this disposal method, pretreated septage is applied directly to furrows or to row crops that will not be directly consumed by humans. This is used for relatively level land, usually for slopes in the ranges of 0.5 to 1.5%.

Right of way

It is the width of the land secured and preserved for the public road purposes. It should be adequate to accommodate all the elements that make up the cross-section of the highway and may reasonably provide for future development.



 the chance of injury or loss as defined as a measure of the probability [likelihood] and severity of an adverse effect to health, property, the environment, or other things of value.

Risk analysis

 the systematic use of information to identify hazards and to estimate the chance for and severity of, injury or loss to individuals or populations, property, the environment, or other things of value.

Road Pricing

A strategy to relieve traffic congestion which views the problem as a market failure that can be addressed by increasing the price motorists pay for the use of road space which is in short supply.

Road Street

Any highway, street, lane, pathway, alley, stairway, passageway, carriage-way, footway, square, place or bridge, a thoroughfare or not, over which the public have a right of passage or access or have passed uninterruptedly for a specified period, whether existing or proposed in any scheme, and includes and all bunds, channel, ditches, storm water drains, culverts, sidewalks, traffic islands, roadside trees and hedges, retaining walls, fences, barriers and railings within the street lines.

Road verge:

 Synonyms: Curb Strip, Nature Strip, Devil Strip, Hell Strip, Furniture Zone, Government Grass…Feel like this says a lot about the city each name comes from.

Running speed

It is the average speed maintained by a vehicle over a given course while the vehicle is in motion i.e running time.


A rural region, with a population density equal to or above the urban threshold, created by a process o in situ population growth or ‘urbanization by implosion’, and that represents a hybrid settlement system that is spatially urban but economically, socially and institutionally agrarian.

Rural-urban Continuum

A continuous gradation of ways of life between the two poles of truly rural community and truy urban society. The concept has been used as a theory of social change which emphasizes the transformations in ways of life from one pole to the others.


 The R-value is a measure of thermal resistance used in the building and construction industry. Under uniform conditions it is the ratio of the temperature difference across an insulator and the heat flux (heat transfer per unit area per unit time, ) through it or . The R-value being discussed is the unit thermal resistance. This is used for a unit value of any particular material. It is expressed as the thickness of the material divided by the thermal conductivity.  The higher the number, the better the building insulation's effectiveness. R-value is the reciprocal of U-factor.