Parapatric Speciation

 Speciation in which the new species forms from a population contiguous with the ancestral species' geographical range.


A premise used for recreational leisure activity. It may have on it related landscaping, parking facility, public toilet, fencing etc. It will include synonyms like lawn, open space, green etc.


Parking accumulationThe total number of vehicles parked in an area at a specified time.


Parking duration

The length of time spent in a parking space.


Parking Index

Percentage of the theoretically available number of parking bays actually occupied by parked vehicles.


Parking turnoverRate of the usage of available parking space.


Parking volume

The number of vehicles parked in a particular area over a given period of time. It is usually measured in vehicles per day.


Passenger Car Unit PCU

To express capacity of roads, the term passenger car unit is used. The basic consideration behind this practice is that different types of vehicles offer different degrees of interference to other traffic and it is necessary to bring all types to a common unit. The common unit adopted is called 'passenger car unit'.


 A relatively homogenous area that differs from its surroundings.

Peak hour factor

It is defined as the traffic volume during peak hour expressed as a percentage of the ADT.

Peripheral urbanization

 A model that employs a political economy perspective to provide a generalized description of the impact of global capitalism on national urban systems in the Third World. The expansion of capitalism into peripheral areas is seen to generate a strong process of urbanization.



How cheese hole-y an urban area is. New Urbanists love this.

Perspective Plan

To develop vision and provide a policy framework for urban & regional development and further detailing.



The art of making “places” rather than stand-alone pretty buildings.


It is defined as an organized process by which a society achieves its development goals. In other words, it means to achieve development i.e. betterment of quality of life or Planning is the establishment of goals, policies and procedures for social or economic units, i.e. city.

Planning and development authorities

An agency for plan preparation, plan approval, plan enforcement and plan implementation. It also means
a Regional Planning and Development Authority, Metropolitan Planning and Development Authority or an Area Planning and Development Authority constituted under the Social planning and Development Act. It seeks to achieve expanding opportunities for raising the standards of life, of the whole population through deliberate steps initiated by the government, influencing both economic activity and physical environment when necessary to achieve the end.

Plant communityA group of plants which when form a distinct combination of species in the landscape and which interact with each other.



A premise used for outdoor games. It may have on it landscaping, parking facilities, public toilets etc.


An open space generally found in an urban environment that serves as a point of assembly, as a physical link between buildings and as a stage for the display of sculptures.



The potion of a structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, immediately above the ground.

Plot or lot

A measured parcel of land having fixed boundaries and access to public circulation.


  Peak Land Value Intersection. The best land value for your buck (AKA Park Lane.)


The intended purposes, mechanisms and guidelines by which programmes are carried out. Policies are usually long range commitments for which immediate programmes can vary gently.


Presence of any substance in air or water in such a concentration that may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or to the air or water itself could be referred to as pollution.


Population density

The ratio between total population to the total area of a city or region or a given. It is expressed in persons per acre or hectare.

Post-industrial city

 A city with an employment profile that exhibits growth of the quaternary sector (i.e. the profes sions, management, administration and skilled technical areas) and a declining manufacturing work force. The dual labour market of a service economy contributes to income Inequality and social polarisation in a city geared to middle-class consumption.

Practical Capacity

The maximum number of vehicles that can pass during one hour without the traffic density being so great as to cause unreasonable delay, hazard under prevailing roadway and traffic condition.


Preservation means maintaining the fabric (all the physical material) of a place in the existing state and retarding deterioration.

Protected area

It means any archeological site or remains, which is declared by the Central Government to be of
national importance.


Protected forest

Those forest areas which are to be conserved to attain physical and climatic balance of the country. Special license for particular activities have to be procured.


Protected view


When a view is so beautiful you have to protect it.

Public convenience

It is basically a derivative of the locational arrangement of land use and the relationship that the each functional use bears to every other one.

Public transportation system

These are modes of passenger transport that are open that are open for public use.

Public utilities

Comprises all those services of necessity which are required in the interest of health and convenience of the population. They include system of public transport, water supply, sewerage, storm water drainage, gas, electricity, street lighting, telephones, fire protection and such other services.


Permanent when used to describe a structure. Made of brick and mortar or stone as compared to a 'kuccha' structure made of bamboo or mud. It is substantial, permanent, solidly built, baked, strong, solid, firm, lasting and permanent.