Capacity Building

Developing the ability of a community-based neighborhood organization to effec-tively design economic development strategies through technical assistance, networks, conferences, and workshops.

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

 Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a set of technologies that can greatly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants, industrial processes, and other stationary sources of carbon dioxide. It is a three-step process that includes capture of carbon dioxide from power plants or industrial sources; transport of the captured and compressed carbon dioxide (usually in pipelines); and underground injection and geologic sequestration, or permanent storage, of that carbon dioxide in rock formations that contain tiny openings or pores that trap and hold the carbon dioxide.

Carriage way

It is the width of the roadway excluding the shoulders. It is paved width of the road surface. Circulation System of movement/ passage of people, goods from place to place, streets, walkways, parking area etc.


A three-dimensional land system or drainage basin, which converts precipitation and groundwater, inputs to stream flow and whose components are assessed in terms of influence on these processes.
The area of land draining into a stream or a water course at a given location is known as catchment area or Drainage area or Drainage basin.



The basic unit for rural areas is revenue village, which has definite surveyed boundaries. The revenue village may comprise several hamlets, but the entire village has been treated as one unit .In un-surveyed areas like settlements within forest areas, each habitation area with locally recognised boundaries within each forest range officer's area was treated as one unit.

The following criteria were adopted for treating a place as urban in 1991 Census:
(a) All statutory towns i.e. all places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
(b) All other places which satisfied the following criteria:

(i) A minimum population of 5,000
(ii) At least 70% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits
(iii) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km. (1000 per sq. mile)


A town with a population of one hundred thousand and above is generally referred to as a 'city'. The urban criteria of the 1981 and 1991 censuses varied slightly from that of the 1961 and 1971 censuses. The workers in occupations of forestry, fishing, livestock, hunting, logging, plantations and orchards etc. (falling in industrial category III) were treated as non- agricultural activities in 1961 and 1971 census whereas in 1981 and 1991 censuses, these activities have been treated as agricultural activities for the purpose of determining the male working population in non-agricultural pursuits.
The urbanised outgrowths of the cities and towns have also been treated as urban. In several areas around a core city or a statutory town fairly large well-recognised railway colony, university campus, port area, military camp etc, might have come up. Even id such places are lying outside the statutory limits
of the corporation, municipality or cantonment, etc, in most cases they fall within the revenue limits of
the village or villages, which is or are contiguous to the town. Since such areas are already urbanized, it is not considered realistic to treat such areas lying outside the statutory limits of a town as rural units, although a few of them may not satisfy some of the prescribed eligibility tests to qualify themselves as independent urban units. Such areas have been termed as 'outgrowth' (OG's) and reckoned along with
the town . Each such town together with its out-growth is treated as an integrated urban area and is designated as 'urban agglomeration'(U.A) therefore constitutes:
(i) A city or a town with a continuos outgrowth, the outgrowth being outside the statutory limits but falling within the boundaries of the adjoining villages or
(ii) Two or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths, if any as in (I) above or
(iii) A city and one or more adjoining towns with or without outgrowths all of which form a continuous spread.
The concept of urban agglomeration (U.A) was adopted for the first time in 1971 census and continued in 1981 and 1991 censuses.

Census house

Is a building or part of a building having a separate main entrance from the road or common courtyard or staircase etc, used or recognised as a separate unit. It may be occupied or vacant. It may be used for residential or non- residential purpose or both

Census house

A census house is a building or a part of a building having a separate main entrance from the road or common courtyard or staircase etc., used or recognized as a separate unit. It may be occupied or vacant it may be used for residential or non-residential purposes or both.


Central business district (CBD)

The Central Business District is the focus of intra-city transport routes, having the maximum overall accessibility to most parts of urban area. It is characterized by peak land values and intense developments with high densities, the development usually being vertical rather than horizontal. Within the district, the shopping area is usually separated from the main office area and entertainment area. The central business district merges almost unnoticed into the surrounding transitional zone, but usually its boundaries are marked by public transport termini.


Underground catch basin that is used where there is no sewer and into which household sewage or other liquid waste is drained to permit leaching of the liquid into the surrounding soil.


Channel flowThe confinement and concentration of the surface water movement in a fluvial channel.


Channel networkThe pattern and connectivity of all channels draining a catchment.


Chimney ( Stack ) Height,

 Chimney ( Stack ) Height, -The effective height of a chimney is the sum of its actual physical height and the plume rise. The latter is the rise of the effluent due to buoyancy and efflux velocity.


It is large than a town and having a population of 100,000 and above and serving as the primate center for services and function.

City Development Plan

 A City Development Plan is a comprehensive document outlining the vision and development strategy for future development of the city, prepared in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders to identity the thrust areas to be addressed on priority basis in order to achieve the objectives and the vision. It thus provides the overall framework within which projects are identified and put forward is a City Investment Plan.

City region

The area within which the connections between one or more cities and the surrounding rural land are intense and functionally (economically, socially, politically and geographically) connected. These areas are typically 80-100 km across and occupy up to 10,000 km².

Cleaner Production

Cleaner production, also sometimes called pollution prevention (P2), is the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes, products, and services to increase overall efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.

Clear sky design

Clear Sky Design is the sky corresponding to a solar altitude of 15 degree luminance, distribution of the sky opposite the sun is constant for a given altitude up to 15 degree, and beyond 15 degree, it illumination is taken as 8,000 lux from the entire sky vault, direct sunlight being excluded.



Plants, which have special structure to climb on supports, are defined as climbers.
Open space An area forming an integral part of the site, left open to the sky.


Cluster development

One in which a number of dwelling units are grouped leaving some land undivided for common use. It may mean grouped leaving the same numbers of units allowed in a given subdivision or zoned area on smaller than usual or minimum lot, with the remainder of land available as a common area.


Coastal plain

A gently sloping land surface which forms a continuum with the continental shelf and is susceptible to small sea level changes; it is likely to be wide on trailing edge (passive margin) coasts and narrow on leading-edge (convergent margin) coast.



 Cohousing: clusters of houses having shared dining halls and other spaces, encouraging stronger social ties while reducing the material and energy needs of the community. 

Collector Street

A collector street is one intended for collecting and distributing traffic to and from street and for providing access to sub-arterial street.


It means an area of land within a controlled area, which is developed or proposed to be developed for purpose of sub-dividing into plots for residential or other purposes


Comfort Zone

 A combination of environment factors in which the majority of people may be expected to experience thermal comfort. The zone is sometime depicted on a chart with dry bulb temperature and relative humidity as the axes. 


The people living in a particular area/ region and usually linked by common interest, viz, namely the region itself or any population cluster.

Community facilities

Facilities or services used by number of people in common including schools, health, recreation, police, fire, public transportation, community centre etc.

Community greens

Shared green spaces in residential neighborhoods. What you mean when you color your plan green in certain areas and call it “sustainable design.”

Compact City

Compact City Concept of Compact City revolves around high-density development without compromising the quality of life of the people. Cities based on compact approach may or may not incorporate all dimensions of a Green city approach. This approach largely solves the problem of externalities such as friction on space (congestion), travel time delays and losses in economic productivity, air and water pollution, solid waste collection and disposal. The optimum density reduces the capital and operating costs of providing public infrastructure and services and improves overall accessibility. 


Compound means land, whether enclosed or not, which is the appurtenance of a building or the common appurtenance of several buildings.

Confirming landuse

 When land is developed in compliance with zoning ordinances in a particular area.

Conscious city


A city that understands you better than your therapist.  


Conservation is the action taken to prevent decay. It embraces all acts that prolong the life of our culture and natural heritage, the object being to project to those who use and look at historical buildings, which such building possess. Conservation means all processes, of looking after a place (means site, area, building or other works, group of buildings or other works together with pertinent contents and surroundings) so as to retain its cultural significance. It includes maintenance, and may, according to circumstances, including adaptation and will be commonly a combination or more than one of these.


A built up area created by the coalescence of once-separate urban settlements, initially through ribbon development along major inter-urban routes.


The urban equivalent of the Blob: an area formed by multiple towns and cities merging together to create one district.

ConvenienceIt is closely associated with the public interest and constitutes a third major basis for the exercise of control. It can be judged in terms of home-to-home, work, work-to-recreation, etc. relationships.



It is closely associated with the public interest and constitutes a third major basis for the exercise of control. It can be judged in terms of home-to-home, work, work-to-recreation, etc. relationships.

Convenience Shopping

A group of shops (not exceeding 50 in number) in a residential area, serving a population of about 5,000 persons.

Core – periphery model

A model of the spatial organization of human activity based on the unequal distribution of economic, social and political power between a dominant core (e.g. the capital city) and a subordinate and dependent periphery.

Core House

Core house is one of the many forms of low-cost housing, covering delivery of anything short of the finished product and incorporating site-and-services scheme. The essence of this house is to provide a framework, which enables a target group of low-income households to obtain substantial at costs within their means.



To the client, the cost is the price he pays to the builder. To the builder, it is the price he pays for the resources used in executed the project.

Counter urbanization

 A process of population deconcentration away from the large urban settlements.


A space permanently open to sky, enclosed fully or partially by buildings and may be at ground level or any other level within or adjacent to a building.


It is the term used to express the percentage of a piece of property, which may be properly, be occupied by building.

Covered Area

Ground area covered immediately above the plinth level covered by the building but does not include the spaces covered by: 1. Garden, rocky, well and well structures, plant nursery, water pool, swimming pool (if open to air), plate-form round a tree, tank, fountain, bench, chabutra with open top and unenclosed on side by wall end the like; 2. Drainage culvert, conduit, catch pits, gully-pits, chamber, gutter etc; and 3. Compound wall, gate, slide swing canopy, area covered and open at least on three sides and also open to sky.



 An urban planning method of winding roads and non-uniform lots. Sounds fun until you drive by the same house 4 times and realize you have no idea where you are.

Cul De Sac

It is a street leading to a closed end provided with facility of turning of vehicles.


Cultural Industries

Activities (such as those involved in printing and publishing , radio, television and theatre, libraries, museums and art galleries and high fashion) that reflects the post-industrial concept of flexible specialization, and which can give rise to a cultural industries quarter in a city.

Cycle time

Any complete sequence of signal indication and time associated with it is called cycle time.