A vulnerability assessment

 A vulnerability assessment is the process of identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing (or ranking) the

vulnerabilities in a system. Examples of systems for which vulnerability assessments are performed include, but are not limited to, information technology systems, energy supply systems, water supply systems, transportation systems, and communication systems. Such assessments may be conducted on behalf of a range of different organizations, from small businesses up to large regional infrastructures. Vulnerability from the perspective of disaster management means assessing the threats from potential hazards to the population and to infrastructure. It may be conducted in the political, social, economic or environmental fields.

AADT Annual Average Daily Traffic

It is 1/ 365th of the total traffic flow.

Access The pedestrian/ Vehicle linkages from the site to/ from existing or planned approaches (urban streets, limited access highway, public transportation system, and other system such as water ways, airlines etc.


AbsorptionThe conversion of radiation to another form of energy.



 Means the same as “adjacent landowner.” Usually, the person who hates progress and wishes everything still looked the same as it did in 1800.


Adoption: The statutory process of terminating legal rights and duties between the child and the natural parents, and substituting similar rights and duties between the child and the adoptive parents. 


 Aerosol: Particles of solid or liquid matter that can remain suspended in air from a few minutes to many months depending on the particle size and weight.


Affordability is the measure of a person's (or family's) ability and willingness to pay.


 Afforestation - Planting new forests on lands that have not been recently forested.


 a large, densely and contiguously populated area consisting of a city and its suburbs.


The use of ecological concepts and principles to study, design and manage agricultural systems. Agroecology seeks to evaluate the full effect of the system inputs and outputs by integrating cultural and environmental factors into the analysis of food production systems and to use this knowledge to improve these systems, taking into account the needs of both the ecosystems as a whole and the people within it.


Agroforestry - (sustainability) an ecologically based farming system, that, through the integration of trees in farms, increases social, environmental and economic benefits to land users.

Air Basin

 Air Basin: A land area with generally similar meteorological and geographic conditions throughout. To the extent possible, air basin boundaries are defined along political boundary lines and include both the source and receptor areas.

Air Conditioning

The process of controlling the temperature, humidity and distribution of air in a building, with simultaneous removal of dirt, bacteria and toxic matter from the air.

Air Quality Standards

Levels of atmospheric contamination by specific pollutants or under laws or ordinances enforced by municipal or state government or regional agencies.


An index of the reflecting power of a surface. It is usually used of short-wave radiation. Light-coloured surfaces such as ice have a high albedo.

Allee Effect

 Phenomenon in which survival of individuals is increased by aggregation.

Ambient Surrounding

 It is used to describe physical properties of air (temperature, humidity, pressure, etc) or air pollution concentration in the open air, as against, at the point of emission or indoors, for example, ambient temperature, ambient air quality.


The word implies pleasing and agreeable environment. Amenity includes attractive open spaces, landscape features, special and recreational provisions and features of scenic or nature beauty.

Ancient Monuments

It is defined to mean any structure, creation or monument or any place of interment or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith, which has been in existence for not less than 100 years.


Annual Plan

To translate development plan in the context of annual physical and fiscal resources requirement. To monitor plan implementation with performance milestones.


 Anthropognic heat is heat generated by buildings, people or machinery.

Apartment House

A building generally of several stories containing a number of separate dwellings with a common entrance from the street and often with services like heating and lighting in common


Appropriate Technology

It depends on the assessment of the society in which the technology is used based on the following criteria affordability benefits in relation to cost and whether it can be implemented on fully used


 Underground source of water.


 A curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight.


 Formalized lintel, the lowest member of the classical entablature. Also the moulded frame of a door or window (often borrowing the profile of a classical architrave).


 What happens when you splice the words “Architecture” and “Ecology.” Used to describe self-contained megastructures that reduce human impacts on the environment (basically, the conceptual projects that architects love to design and no-one loves to pay for.)

Arterial Street

It is a street primary meant for through traffic on a continuous route


(plural: atria) Inner court of a Roman or C20 house; in a multi-story building, a toplit covered court rising through all stories.


 Small top storey within a roof. The storey above the main entablature of a classical façade.