A vulnerability assessment

 A vulnerability assessment is the process of identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing (or ranking) the

vulnerabilities in a system. Examples of systems for which vulnerability assessments are performed include, but are not limited to, information technology systems, energy supply systems, water supply systems, transportation systems, and communication systems. Such assessments may be conducted on behalf of a range of different organizations, from small businesses up to large regional infrastructures. Vulnerability from the perspective of disaster management means assessing the threats from potential hazards to the population and to infrastructure. It may be conducted in the political, social, economic or environmental fields.

AADT Annual Average Daily Traffic

It is 1/ 365th of the total traffic flow.

Access The pedestrian/ Vehicle linkages from the site to/ from existing or planned approaches (urban streets, limited access highway, public transportation system, and other system such as water ways, airlines etc.


AbsorptionThe conversion of radiation to another form of energy.



 Means the same as “adjacent landowner.” Usually, the person who hates progress and wishes everything still looked the same as it did in 1800.


Adoption: The statutory process of terminating legal rights and duties between the child and the natural parents, and substituting similar rights and duties between the child and the adoptive parents. 


 Aerosol: Particles of solid or liquid matter that can remain suspended in air from a few minutes to many months depending on the particle size and weight.


Affordability is the measure of a person's (or family's) ability and willingness to pay.


 Afforestation - Planting new forests on lands that have not been recently forested.


 a large, densely and contiguously populated area consisting of a city and its suburbs.


The use of ecological concepts and principles to study, design and manage agricultural systems. Agroecology seeks to evaluate the full effect of the system inputs and outputs by integrating cultural and environmental factors into the analysis of food production systems and to use this knowledge to improve these systems, taking into account the needs of both the ecosystems as a whole and the people within it.


Agroforestry - (sustainability) an ecologically based farming system, that, through the integration of trees in farms, increases social, environmental and economic benefits to land users.

Air Basin

 Air Basin: A land area with generally similar meteorological and geographic conditions throughout. To the extent possible, air basin boundaries are defined along political boundary lines and include both the source and receptor areas.

Air Conditioning

The process of controlling the temperature, humidity and distribution of air in a building, with simultaneous removal of dirt, bacteria and toxic matter from the air.

Air Quality Standards

Levels of atmospheric contamination by specific pollutants or under laws or ordinances enforced by municipal or state government or regional agencies.


An index of the reflecting power of a surface. It is usually used of short-wave radiation. Light-coloured surfaces such as ice have a high albedo.

Allee Effect

 Phenomenon in which survival of individuals is increased by aggregation.

Ambient Surrounding

 It is used to describe physical properties of air (temperature, humidity, pressure, etc) or air pollution concentration in the open air, as against, at the point of emission or indoors, for example, ambient temperature, ambient air quality.


The word implies pleasing and agreeable environment. Amenity includes attractive open spaces, landscape features, special and recreational provisions and features of scenic or nature beauty.

Ancient Monuments

It is defined to mean any structure, creation or monument or any place of interment or any cave, rock-sculpture, inscription or monolith, which has been in existence for not less than 100 years.


Annual Plan

To translate development plan in the context of annual physical and fiscal resources requirement. To monitor plan implementation with performance milestones.


 Anthropognic heat is heat generated by buildings, people or machinery.

Apartment House

A building generally of several stories containing a number of separate dwellings with a common entrance from the street and often with services like heating and lighting in common


Appropriate Technology

It depends on the assessment of the society in which the technology is used based on the following criteria affordability benefits in relation to cost and whether it can be implemented on fully used


 Underground source of water.


 A curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight.


 Formalized lintel, the lowest member of the classical entablature. Also the moulded frame of a door or window (often borrowing the profile of a classical architrave).


 What happens when you splice the words “Architecture” and “Ecology.” Used to describe self-contained megastructures that reduce human impacts on the environment (basically, the conceptual projects that architects love to design and no-one loves to pay for.)

Arterial Street

It is a street primary meant for through traffic on a continuous route


(plural: atria) Inner court of a Roman or C20 house; in a multi-story building, a toplit covered court rising through all stories.


 Small top storey within a roof. The storey above the main entablature of a classical façade.


A horizontal cantilevered projection including a handrail or balustrade to serve as passage or sitting out place


Habitable room/ rooms on the roof of building with or without toilet and kitchen.

Basic Capacity

The maximum number of passenger cars that can pass at a given point, in a lane or on a road during one hour


Bio pesticide

 Pesticide made from biological sources, that is from toxins which occur naturally.

Bio-Climatic Design

 Architectural process for specific climate conditions that aims to improve human thermal comfort by use of conventional energy, by appropriate building form, orientation, materials and openings, reducing or eliminating artificial conditioning. 


Biodiversity Hotspot

A bio-geographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.


 Gas or liquid fuel made from plant material. Includes wood, wood waste, wood liquors, peat, railroad ties, wood sludge, spent sulfite liquors, agricultural waste, straw, tires, fish oils, tall oil, sludge waste, waste alcohol, municipal solid waste, landfill gases, other waste, and ethanol blended into motor gasoline. 

Biological Oxygen Demand BODThe quality of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic matter by bacterial action in the presence of oxygen.


Biological resources

Includes genetic resources, organisms of parts thereof, populations, or any other biotic component of ecosystems with actual or potential use of value for humanity Source: Convention on Biodiversity (CBD)


All organic matter that derives from the photosynthetic conversion of solar energy.(Source: European Commission,CUB)

Bio-massThe total weight of biological organisms within a specified unit (area, community, population)


BiomeAn area dominated with similar plant species and ecological community extending over the same physiography region.



A territory defined by a combination of biological, social, and geographic criteria, rather than geopolitical considerations; generally, a system of related, interconnected ecosystems. (Source: Global Biodiversity Assessment, GBA)


The zone occupied by living organism at the common boundary of earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere,


Blackwater: household wastewater that contains solid waste i.e. toilet discharge.


 Boom(ing) (su)burb. Areas that have the population density of a city with the ugly buildings of the suburbs.

Border crossing

 Border crossing: The physical act of crossing a border either at an established check point or elsewhere along the border. See also border, border control, border officials, checkpoint.

Brownfield land

 Potentially contaminated former commercial or industrial land, which your real estate developer client will insist on referring to as “opportune”.


 The act of plonking modern high-rises in the middle of cities with no regard for its context. The name derives from the fact that the city of Brussels did it a lot.

Buffer zone

The region near the border of a protected area; a transition zone between areas managed for different objectives.


A building is generally a single structure on the ground. Sometimes it is made up of two or more component units which are used or likely to be used as dwellings (residence) or establishments such as shops, business houses, offices, factories, worksheds, schools, places of entertainment, places of worship, godowns, stores, etc. It is also possible that buildings that have component units may be used for a combination of purposes such as shop-cum-residence, workshop-cum-residence, office-cum-residence etc.


Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever material constructed and every part thereof, whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation, plinth walls, roofs, chimneys,1790 plumbing and building services, fixed platforms, verandahs, balcony, cornice or projection part of building or any thing affixed thereto or any wall enclosing or indenting to enclose land or space and signs and outdoor display structure, monuments, memorials or any contrivance of permanent nature, built under or over ground.


Building Code

A body of legislative regulations or bye-laws that provides minimum standards to safeguard life or limbs, health, property and public welfare by quality of material, use and occupancy, loation and maintenance1790 of all building and structures within the city and certain equipment specifically regulated therein.

Building line

The line upto which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a street or on a future street may lawfully extend. It includes the lines prescribed in the Delhi Master Plan or specially1790 indicated in any scheme or layout plan or in the bylaws.

Built Environment

 Manmade habitats, encompassing regional, urban, local and building design scales. 

Capacity Building

Developing the ability of a community-based neighborhood organization to effec-tively design economic development strategies through technical assistance, networks, conferences, and workshops.

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

 Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a set of technologies that can greatly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants, industrial processes, and other stationary sources of carbon dioxide. It is a three-step process that includes capture of carbon dioxide from power plants or industrial sources; transport of the captured and compressed carbon dioxide (usually in pipelines); and underground injection and geologic sequestration, or permanent storage, of that carbon dioxide in rock formations that contain tiny openings or pores that trap and hold the carbon dioxide.

Carriage way

It is the width of the roadway excluding the shoulders. It is paved width of the road surface. Circulation System of movement/ passage of people, goods from place to place, streets, walkways, parking area etc.


A three-dimensional land system or drainage basin, which converts precipitation and groundwater, inputs to stream flow and whose components are assessed in terms of influence on these processes.
The area of land draining into a stream or a water course at a given location is known as catchment area or Drainage area or Drainage basin.



The basic unit for rural areas is revenue village, which has definite surveyed boundaries. The revenue village may comprise several hamlets, but the entire village has been treated as one unit .In un-surveyed areas like settlements within forest areas, each habitation area with locally recognised boundaries within each forest range officer's area was treated as one unit.

The following criteria were adopted for treating a place as urban in 1991 Census:
(a) All statutory towns i.e. all places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
(b) All other places which satisfied the following criteria:

(i) A minimum population of 5,000
(ii) At least 70% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits
(iii) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km. (1000 per sq. mile)


A town with a population of one hundred thousand and above is generally referred to as a 'city'. The urban criteria of the 1981 and 1991 censuses varied slightly from that of the 1961 and 1971 censuses. The workers in occupations of forestry, fishing, livestock, hunting, logging, plantations and orchards etc. (falling in industrial category III) were treated as non- agricultural activities in 1961 and 1971 census whereas in 1981 and 1991 censuses, these activities have been treated as agricultural activities for the purpose of determining the male working population in non-agricultural pursuits.
The urbanised outgrowths of the cities and towns have also been treated as urban. In several areas around a core city or a statutory town fairly large well-recognised railway colony, university campus, port area, military camp etc, might have come up. Even id such places are lying outside the statutory limits
of the corporation, municipality or cantonment, etc, in most cases they fall within the revenue limits of
the village or villages, which is or are contiguous to the town. Since such areas are already urbanized, it is not considered realistic to treat such areas lying outside the statutory limits of a town as rural units, although a few of them may not satisfy some of the prescribed eligibility tests to qualify themselves as independent urban units. Such areas have been termed as 'outgrowth' (OG's) and reckoned along with
the town . Each such town together with its out-growth is treated as an integrated urban area and is designated as 'urban agglomeration'(U.A) therefore constitutes:
(i) A city or a town with a continuos outgrowth, the outgrowth being outside the statutory limits but falling within the boundaries of the adjoining villages or
(ii) Two or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths, if any as in (I) above or
(iii) A city and one or more adjoining towns with or without outgrowths all of which form a continuous spread.
The concept of urban agglomeration (U.A) was adopted for the first time in 1971 census and continued in 1981 and 1991 censuses.

Census house

Is a building or part of a building having a separate main entrance from the road or common courtyard or staircase etc, used or recognised as a separate unit. It may be occupied or vacant. It may be used for residential or non- residential purpose or both

Census house

A census house is a building or a part of a building having a separate main entrance from the road or common courtyard or staircase etc., used or recognized as a separate unit. It may be occupied or vacant it may be used for residential or non-residential purposes or both.


Central business district (CBD)

The Central Business District is the focus of intra-city transport routes, having the maximum overall accessibility to most parts of urban area. It is characterized by peak land values and intense developments with high densities, the development usually being vertical rather than horizontal. Within the district, the shopping area is usually separated from the main office area and entertainment area. The central business district merges almost unnoticed into the surrounding transitional zone, but usually its boundaries are marked by public transport termini.


Underground catch basin that is used where there is no sewer and into which household sewage or other liquid waste is drained to permit leaching of the liquid into the surrounding soil.


Channel flowThe confinement and concentration of the surface water movement in a fluvial channel.


Channel networkThe pattern and connectivity of all channels draining a catchment.


Chimney ( Stack ) Height,

 Chimney ( Stack ) Height, -The effective height of a chimney is the sum of its actual physical height and the plume rise. The latter is the rise of the effluent due to buoyancy and efflux velocity.


It is large than a town and having a population of 100,000 and above and serving as the primate center for services and function.

City Development Plan

 A City Development Plan is a comprehensive document outlining the vision and development strategy for future development of the city, prepared in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders to identity the thrust areas to be addressed on priority basis in order to achieve the objectives and the vision. It thus provides the overall framework within which projects are identified and put forward is a City Investment Plan.

City region

The area within which the connections between one or more cities and the surrounding rural land are intense and functionally (economically, socially, politically and geographically) connected. These areas are typically 80-100 km across and occupy up to 10,000 km².

Cleaner Production

Cleaner production, also sometimes called pollution prevention (P2), is the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes, products, and services to increase overall efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.

Clear sky design

Clear Sky Design is the sky corresponding to a solar altitude of 15 degree luminance, distribution of the sky opposite the sun is constant for a given altitude up to 15 degree, and beyond 15 degree, it illumination is taken as 8,000 lux from the entire sky vault, direct sunlight being excluded.



Plants, which have special structure to climb on supports, are defined as climbers.
Open space An area forming an integral part of the site, left open to the sky.


Cluster development

One in which a number of dwelling units are grouped leaving some land undivided for common use. It may mean grouped leaving the same numbers of units allowed in a given subdivision or zoned area on smaller than usual or minimum lot, with the remainder of land available as a common area.


Coastal plain

A gently sloping land surface which forms a continuum with the continental shelf and is susceptible to small sea level changes; it is likely to be wide on trailing edge (passive margin) coasts and narrow on leading-edge (convergent margin) coast.



 Cohousing: clusters of houses having shared dining halls and other spaces, encouraging stronger social ties while reducing the material and energy needs of the community. 

Collector Street

A collector street is one intended for collecting and distributing traffic to and from street and for providing access to sub-arterial street.


It means an area of land within a controlled area, which is developed or proposed to be developed for purpose of sub-dividing into plots for residential or other purposes


Comfort Zone

 A combination of environment factors in which the majority of people may be expected to experience thermal comfort. The zone is sometime depicted on a chart with dry bulb temperature and relative humidity as the axes. 


The people living in a particular area/ region and usually linked by common interest, viz, namely the region itself or any population cluster.

Community facilities

Facilities or services used by number of people in common including schools, health, recreation, police, fire, public transportation, community centre etc.

Community greens

Shared green spaces in residential neighborhoods. What you mean when you color your plan green in certain areas and call it “sustainable design.”

Compact City

Compact City Concept of Compact City revolves around high-density development without compromising the quality of life of the people. Cities based on compact approach may or may not incorporate all dimensions of a Green city approach. This approach largely solves the problem of externalities such as friction on space (congestion), travel time delays and losses in economic productivity, air and water pollution, solid waste collection and disposal. The optimum density reduces the capital and operating costs of providing public infrastructure and services and improves overall accessibility. 


Compound means land, whether enclosed or not, which is the appurtenance of a building or the common appurtenance of several buildings.

Confirming landuse

 When land is developed in compliance with zoning ordinances in a particular area.

Conscious city


A city that understands you better than your therapist.  


Conservation is the action taken to prevent decay. It embraces all acts that prolong the life of our culture and natural heritage, the object being to project to those who use and look at historical buildings, which such building possess. Conservation means all processes, of looking after a place (means site, area, building or other works, group of buildings or other works together with pertinent contents and surroundings) so as to retain its cultural significance. It includes maintenance, and may, according to circumstances, including adaptation and will be commonly a combination or more than one of these.


The urban equivalent of the Blob: an area formed by multiple towns and cities merging together to create one district.


A built up area created by the coalescence of once-separate urban settlements, initially through ribbon development along major inter-urban routes.

ConvenienceIt is closely associated with the public interest and constitutes a third major basis for the exercise of control. It can be judged in terms of home-to-home, work, work-to-recreation, etc. relationships.



It is closely associated with the public interest and constitutes a third major basis for the exercise of control. It can be judged in terms of home-to-home, work, work-to-recreation, etc. relationships.

Convenience Shopping

A group of shops (not exceeding 50 in number) in a residential area, serving a population of about 5,000 persons.

Core – periphery model

A model of the spatial organization of human activity based on the unequal distribution of economic, social and political power between a dominant core (e.g. the capital city) and a subordinate and dependent periphery.

Core House

Core house is one of the many forms of low-cost housing, covering delivery of anything short of the finished product and incorporating site-and-services scheme. The essence of this house is to provide a framework, which enables a target group of low-income households to obtain substantial at costs within their means.



To the client, the cost is the price he pays to the builder. To the builder, it is the price he pays for the resources used in executed the project.

Counter urbanization

 A process of population deconcentration away from the large urban settlements.


A space permanently open to sky, enclosed fully or partially by buildings and may be at ground level or any other level within or adjacent to a building.


It is the term used to express the percentage of a piece of property, which may be properly, be occupied by building.

Covered Area

Ground area covered immediately above the plinth level covered by the building but does not include the spaces covered by: 1. Garden, rocky, well and well structures, plant nursery, water pool, swimming pool (if open to air), plate-form round a tree, tank, fountain, bench, chabutra with open top and unenclosed on side by wall end the like; 2. Drainage culvert, conduit, catch pits, gully-pits, chamber, gutter etc; and 3. Compound wall, gate, slide swing canopy, area covered and open at least on three sides and also open to sky.



 An urban planning method of winding roads and non-uniform lots. Sounds fun until you drive by the same house 4 times and realize you have no idea where you are.

Cul De Sac

It is a street leading to a closed end provided with facility of turning of vehicles.


Cultural Industries

Activities (such as those involved in printing and publishing , radio, television and theatre, libraries, museums and art galleries and high fashion) that reflects the post-industrial concept of flexible specialization, and which can give rise to a cultural industries quarter in a city.

Cycle time

Any complete sequence of signal indication and time associated with it is called cycle time.



The universal measure of loudness is called decibel, usually abbreviated as dB. Zero decibel is the threshold of the hearing, while 85 dB is usually considered loud enough to cause damage to the ear.


It is the ratio of persons, households or volume of building or development to some unit of land area.

Density on Concentration

It is the number of vehicles occupying a given length of lane or roadway, averaged over time.


The arrangement of elements that make up a work of art, a machine or other man-made object; the process of selecting the means and contriving the elements, steps and procedures for predicting what1790 will be adequate to satisfy some needs.

Development Controls

It is process through which development carried out by many agencies, both by public and private are checked in the benefit of whole society.

Development Plan

To prepare a comprehensive development plan for urban areas, peri-urban areas under control of development authority/ Metropolitan planning committee.

DhalaoA premise used for collection of garbage for its onward transport to disposal site.


 a) On the scale of molecules, diffusion is a mixing of substances caused by molecular motion ( Molecular Diffusion). 

b) In atmosphere it implies the spread of pollutants by turbulence or eddy motion ( also called Atmospheric Diffusion )

Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

 A regularly spaces matrix of elevation values, which contain 3D information in a 2D digital format. It is represented as a 256 color grayscale image, where the grey level is proportional to the height of the building. 

Direct Use Value

 Economic values derived from direct use or interaction with a biological resource or resource system.


 Dispersion -The method by which a pollutant spreads from its point of emission and becomes diluted in the atmosphere. It includes transport by winds and simultaneous spread by turbulence (atmospheric diffusion).

District Road

District roads are the roads transferring each district, serving area of production and markets and connecting to these with each other or national or state highways.


Diverted Traffic

Traffic, which has changed from its previous route of travel to another route, without change in origin or destination


Domestic Biodiversity

The genetic variation existing among the species, breeds, cultivars and individuals of animal, plant and microbial species that have been domesticated, often including their immediate wild relatives.

Drainage BasinA geographical area bounded by a watershed and drained by a discreet drainage network


Drainage DensityThe total stream channel length per unit land surface area, normally calculated for an entire drainage basin.


Drainage Network

More or less synonymous with the channel network but may also include rills, gullies and larger underground pipes not considered part of a permanent surface channel network.


Drainage patternThe geometric configuration or plan of drainage network which usually reflects catchment geology, tectonic and denudation history.

Driving Rain Index

 It Characterises a given location and expresses the degree of exposure. It is the product of annual rainfall(in mm) and the annual average wind velocity (in metres per second, m/s).  

Dwell Time

The time for which a transit vehicle is stopped for the purpose of serving passengers (for example, stoppage of a bus for boarding and alighting of passengers.

Dwell Time

The time for which a transit vehicle is stopped for the purpose of serving passengers (for example, stoppage of a bus for boarding and alighting of passengers.


Dwelling Type

The physical arrangement of dwelling units includes: 1. Detached - Individual dwelling unit, separated from the other. 2. Semi-detached - Two dwelling units sharing a common wall. 3. Row / Group - Dwelling units grouped together linearly or in cluster. 4. Walk-up - Dwelling units grouped in two to five stories with stairs for vertical circulation. 5. High Rise - Dwelling units in five or more stories with stairs and lifts for vertical circulation.

Dwelling Unit

A general, global designation of a building / shelter in which people live. A dwelling may contain one more dwelling units.


Dwelling Unit Area

The dwelling unit area (sq. m) is the built-up, covered area of a dwelling unit.


Dwelling Unit Area

The dwelling unit area is the built-up covered area of a dwelling unit.

Dwelling units

In relation to a building or portion of a building, means a unit of accommodation, in such building or portion used sole for the purpose of residence.


Easement (Servitude)

A right in respect of an object (as land owned by one person) in virtue of which the object (Land) is subjected to a specified use or enjoyment by another person or for the benefit of another thing.


 Eco-city - An eco-city is a city built off the principles of living within the means of the environment.Such a city should ideally fulfill the following requirements:

·          Operates on a self-contained economy, resources needed are found locally

·          Has completely carbon-neutral and renewable energy production

·          Has a well-planned city layout and public transportation system that makes the priority methods of transportation as follows possible: walking first, then cycling, and then public transportation.

·          Resource conservation—maximizing efficiency of water and energy resources, constructing a waste management system that can recycle waste and reuse it, creating a zero-waste system

·          Restores environmentally damaged urban areas

·          Ensures decent and affordable housing for all socio-economic and ethnic groups and improve jobs opportunities for disadvantaged groups, such as women, minorities, and the disabled

·          Supports local agriculture and produce

·          Promotes voluntary simplicity in lifestyle choices, decreasing material consumption, and increasing awareness of environmental and sustainability issues

Economics activity

The 1981 census, the data of main workers were presented for the four categories viz, cultivators, agricultural labourers, household industry and other workers. Categories III, IV, V, (b) , VI to IX were clubbed together and the data were presented under the category of 'other workers. In 1991 census the data for main workers have been classified in to nine industrial as in 1971 census. The categories are: I - cultivators, II- Agricultural Labourers, III-Livestock, Forestry, Fishing, Hunting, and Plantations, or orchards and allied activities, IV- mining and quarrying, V-(a) Manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs in household industry, V(b) Manufacturing , processing, servicing and repair in other than household industry, VI- constructions, VII-trade and commerce, VIII- Transport, storage and communications, IX- other services.


 A community of plants, animals and smaller organisms that live, feed, reproduce and interact in the same area or environment. Ecosystems have no fixed boundaries; a single lake, a watershed, or an entire region could be considered an ecosystem.

Ecosystem services

Goods and services produced by nature and shaped by social ecological processes that are beneficial to humans.

Edge city


 A secondary CBD on the edge of the city.


Edges are the linear elements not used or considered as a path by the observer. They are the boundaries between two phases linear breaks in continuity: shores, railroad cuts, edges of development, walls etc. such edges may be barriers, more or less penetrable, which close one region off from the other; or they may be seams, lines along with two regions which are related and joined together.


EffluentOutflow or discharge from a sewer or sewage treatment plant.


The fancy science behind urban planning. A term used by people who really care about The Power of Design.

Elbow roomers

 People who leave the city for the countryside

Emission Factor:

 Emission Factor: For stationary sources, the relationship between the amount of pollution produced and the amount of raw material processed or burned. For mobile sources, the relationship between the amount of pollution produced and the number of vehicle miles traveled. By using the emission factor of a pollutant and specific data regarding quantities of materials used by a given source, it is possible to compute emissions for the source. This approach is used in preparing an emissions inventory.

Emission Offsets

 Emission Offsets (also known as Emissions Trading): A rule-making concept whereby approval of a new or modified stationary source of air pollution is conditional on the reduction of emissions from other existing stationary sources of air pollution. These reductions are required in addition to reductions required by best available control technology.

Energy conservation

 Energy conservation - using energy efficiently or prudently; saving energy.

Energy management

 Energy management:A program of well-planned actions aimed at reducing energy use, recurrent energy costs, and detrimental greenhouse gas emissions.

Environmental Certification

Environmental certification is a form of environmental regulation and development where a company can voluntarily choose to comply with predefined processes or objectives set forth by the certification service. Most certification services have a logo (commonly known as an ecolabel) which can be applied to products certified under their standards. This is seen as a form of corporate social responsibility allowing companies to address their obligation to minimise the harmful impacts to the environment by voluntarily following a set of externally set and measured objectives.


The locations of earth's surface directly above the focus is called the Epicentre.


Any dynamic process, which causes the removal of earth materials, distinguished here from weathering, denudation and mass wasting.

Ethical Values

 Statements of ethical principle that inform the private and social valuation of biological resources.

Express Way

These are divided arterial highway for motor traffic, with full or partial control of access and provided generally with grade separation at intersections. It connects major activity areas and its main function is to provide for movement of heavy volumes of motor traffic at high speed.



The area, surrounding a metropolitan area beyond the suburbs.


  A practice vehemently hated by many architects, it mostly consists of badly hiding a glass box behind a skinned heritage building.

Factor of Safety

Farm Tractor and Wagon Spreading

 Liquid septage or septage solids are transferred to farm equipment for spreading. This allows for application of liquid or solid septage. The septage must be incorporated into the soil within 6 hours, if lime stabilization has not been done.

Floor area ratio

Total floor area of building. Area of the plot.

Floor Area Ratio FAR

The quotient obtained by dividing the total covered area (plinth area) on al the floors divided by the area1790 of the area of the plot and multiplied by 100.
FAR = Floor x 100 x Plot Area


Floor Space Index FSIFSI is the same as FAR but expressed in units and not as %.


It is the number of vehicles passing a specified point during a stated period of time, which is usually expressed in vehicles per hour.

Food security

Food security: Food produced in sufficient quantity to meet the full requirements of all people i.e. total global food supply equals the total global demand. For households it is the ability to purchase or produce the food they need for a healthy and active life (disposable income is a crucial issue). Women are typically gatekeepers of household food security. For national food security, the focus is on sufficient food for all people in a nation and it entails a combination of national production, imports and exports. Food security always has components of production, access and utilization. 


The term fringe suggests a borderline case between the rural and urban, and actually lies on the periphery of urban areas, surrounding it and distinguished it from the truly countryside.

Fringe Belt

 A zone of mixed land uses at the edge of a built-up area.


FSSM : Faecal Sludge and Septage Management

Functional Region

It is a geographical area, which displays a certain functional coherence such as cities, towns and village, which are functionally related.

Fused grid

 A type of street network pattern that looks like an IQ test.


Animals and vegetable waste resulting from the handling, preparation, cooking and serving of foods. It does not include food waste from industrial processing


Gated Community

 A residential area with defensive measures such as gates, fences and security guards to exclude social groups deemed undesirable.


 The process of neighborhood upgrading by relatively affluent incomers who move into a poorer neighborhood in sufficient numbers to displace lower-income groups and transform its social identity.

Green belt

  A policy used in urban planning to retain a “belt” of the natural environment around urban areas, because if there’s still a tiny strip of green we can keep pretending we’re not destroying the Earth

Green House Effect

The condition in which the earth's average global temperature is normally higher than predicated by radiation laws by virtue of the presence of capable of absorbing outgoing long-wave radiation.


Green Infrastructure

Green infrastructure is strategically planned and managed networks of natural lands, working landscapes and other open spaces that conserve ecosystem values and functions and provide associated benefits to human populations.

Green Time

The length of the green phase plus its change intervals in seconds (in a traffic signal)


Greenfield land

 The opposite of Brownfield land: land that is untouched and pristine.

Greyfield land

 Buildings or real estate land that is economically useless, such as “dead malls” with seas of empty asphalt around them.  

Grid plan

 Pretty obvious what this means. A plan in the shape of a grid.

Gross densityIt includes any kind of land utilisation, residential, circulation, public facilities etc.

Gross Residential Density

Residential density is calculated by taking the total resident population over the entire land area of a residential zone including all roads, parks/ playgrounds, educational institutions, facilities areas etc.

Group Housing

A premise of size not less than 4000 sqm comprising of residential flats with basic amenities like parking, park, convenience shops, public utilities etc.

Growth Centres

These are small towns or larger villages that have the potential of becoming nuclei for the future economic, social and political development of the surrounding areas.

Habitable Room

A room occupied or designed for occupancy by one or more persons for study, living, sleeping, kitchen if it is used for living room, but not including bathrooms, water-closet, compartments, laundries, serving and storage pantries, corridors, cellars and spaces that are not used frequently or during extended periods. Most regulations required a habitable room to be at least 100 sq ft



 The place or type of site where an organism or population naturally occurs.


is less than a village and consists of a dozen households and subsidiary to other settlements.

Hauler Truck Spreading

 Septage is applied to the soil directly from a hauler truck that uses a splash plate to improve distribution. The same truck that pumps out the septic tank can be used for transporting and disposing the septage.


It is the time between successive vehicles as they pass a point on the road.



 In 1965 during theConstitutive Assembly of ICOMOS,2 the scope of heritage was redefined. Heritage wasthen defined as monuments and sites:

Article 3:1

The term monument shall include all real property, … whether they contain buildings or not, having archaeological, architectural, historic or ethnographical interest and may include besides the furnishing preserved within them

The term site shall be defined as a group of elements, either natural or man-made, or combinations of the two, which it is in the public interest to conserve.

Hierarchy of Road

Roads are generally classified into two major categories- Urban and Rural

1. Urban Roads -

(a) Expressways

(b) Arterial Roads

(c) Sub-arterial Roads

(d) Collector Roads

(e) Local Roads

2. Rural Roads -

(a) National Highways

(b) State Highways

(c) Other District Roads

(d) Village Roads.



In the context of planning, 'house' means a building for human habitation. It can take many forms, a mud-hut with a single room to a place with 500 rooms. For modern planning, the majority of houses are either one, two or three storey single-family dwellings and either detached, semi-detached or terraced i.e., structurally joined in rows of three or more. Except in housing statistics, the term is not usually applied to single-floor dwellings in multi-storey building; these are called 'apartments' in USA and most European countries and 'flats' in Great Britain.



A household is a group of persons who commonly live together and would take their meals from the common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevent any of them from doing so. There may be households of persons related by blood or a household of unrelated persons or mix of both.



Is a group of persons who commonly live together and would take their meals from a common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevented any of them form doing so. There may be a household of persons related by blood or a household of unrelated persons of having a mix of both. Household such as boarding houses, messes, hostels, residential hostels, rescue homes, jails ashrams etc. these are called "institutional households". There may be one member households, two member households or multi-member household. For census purposes each one of these types is regarded as a 'household'.

Household Industry

An industry conducted by the household himself/ herself and or members of the household at home or within the village in rural area and only within the precincts of the house where the household lived in urban areas. A household industry is one that is engaged in production, processing, serving, repairing or making and selling (but not merely selling) of gods.

Houseless Population

The enumeration of the houseless population was carried out in possible places where houseless population are likely to live such as on roadside pavements, in hume pipe, under staircase or in the open, temples mandaps, platforms.


Houseless Population

The enumeration of the houseless population was carried out in possible places where houseless population are likely to live such as on roadside pavements, in hume pipe, under staircase or in the open, temples mandaps, platforms.

Housing Demand

It is measured as the number of dwellings of standard quality that a given expenditure could purchase.


Housing Finance

Covers financing at al stages in the development and sale of housing from land purchase to construction, installation of on-site infrastructure, and mortgage credit. Some stages, such as construction, require short-term loans; other, such as mortgage financing are long-term.

Housing Need

Number of dwelling units required for households without shelter and households occupying unacceptable living quarters, or The total need for housing irrespective of the capability of the individuals/ households to be able to afford it.


Housing Shortage

A housing shortage is the amount by which the demand for housing at a given price exceeds the supply of housing.

Housing Situation

Incomes, city size, rate of urban growth and policy together define the housing situation in any city.

Housing Stock

It is a capital god with a long life complicates the analysis of housing demand.

Housing Supply

The total supply of housing that is made available, or existing, by various sources like Government/ non-Governmental agencies, to meet the demand and need of the housing.

Human settlements

Is a habitat comprising of man made and natural environment in which man lives works, raises his family and seeks his physical spiritual and intellectual well being


 A superstore of at least 50,000 sq.ft (4600 sq.m) of sales-area.


A person was considered as cultivator if he or she was engaged either as employer, worker or family in cultivation of land owned or held from government or held from private persons or institutions for payment in money, kind or share of crops. Cultivation included supervision or direction of cultivation. Cultivation involves ploughing, sowing and harvesting and production of cereals and millets crops.

II-Agricultural Laborers
A person who worked in another person's land for wages in cash, kind or share or crop was regarded as an agricultural labourer, working in another person's land for wages. An agricultural labourer has no right of lease or contract on land on which he worked.

Image of the City

People's impressions of a building, a particular environment or a whole city, are (of course), more than visual. Within the city lie many connotations, memories, experience, hopes, crowds, places, buildings, the drama of life and death, affecting each person according to one's own predictions. From his environment, each person constructs his own mental picture of the parts of the city in physical relationship to one another. The most essential parts of an individual's image overlap and compliment those of his fellows. Hence, we can assume a collective picture of what people extract from the physical reality of a city. The extracted picture is the image of the city.


It is the quality in a physical object, which gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in any given observer's mind. It is that shape, color, or arrangement which facilitates the making of vividly identified, powerfully structured, highly useful mental images of the environment.


The amount (measured in money) of gains from capital or labour. The amount of such gain received by a family per year may be used as an indicator of income groups.

Income groups

A group of people or families within the same range of incomes.

Indigenous technology

A specific skill in or from a particular environment, for the ultimate benefit of society living in that environment.

Indoor air Pollution

It refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of air in the indoor environment within a home, building, or an institution or commercial facility.

Indoor air quality (IAQ)

IAQ  is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.

Informal Unit

A small retail or service unit without a permanent roof, of mobile nature, rendering service without
making demands on infrastructure.


It is the basic facilities, which any developed area requires to sustain the activity being carried out in it. Infrastructure may be physical or social. 1) Physical Infrastructure - (a) Water Supply (b) Sewage Disposal (c) Drainage (d) Solid Waste Disposal (e) Power Supply.
2) Social Infrastructure - (a) Health (b) Education (c) Communications (d) Security (e) Fire Safety
(f) Other facilities such as milk booths, petrol and gas stations, barat ghars, dharamshalas etc.

Intergenerational Equity

 A core proposition is that future generations have a right to an inheritance (capital bequest) sufficient to allow them to generate a level of well being no less than that of the current generation. Fairness in the treatment of different members of the same generation.

Inter-green time Clearance interval

The time period between the end of a green indication of another phase on the traffic signal.


 Inversion - An atmospheric condition where a layer of cooler air is trapped near the ground by a layer of warmer air above. When the air cannot rise, pollution at the surface also is trapped and can accumulate, leading to higher concentrations of ozone and particle pollution.


Joule: The basic unit of energy; the equivalent of 1 watt of power radiated or dissipated for 1 second. Natural gas consumption is usually measured in megajoules (MJ), where 1 MJ = 1, 000,000 J. On large accounts it may be measured in gigajoules (GJ), where 1 GJ = 1 000,000,000 J.

Journey speed

It is the effective speed of a vehicle between two points, i.e. total distance / total journey time (including delays).



Unbaked, clay built, below a fixed standard, half done. Provisional, flimsy, substandard.


A kutch structure is one which has both walls and roofs made of kutcha or non-pucca materials such as unburnt bricks, bamboo, mud grass, leaves, reeds and or thatch etc.


Land includes benefits arising out of land, and things attached to earth permanently fastened to anything attached to the earth.

Land cost

The amount of money given or set as the amount to be given as consideration for the sale of a specific piece of land.

Land cover

The physical coverage of land, usually expressed in terms of vegetation cover or lack of it. The human use of a piece of land for a certain purpose (such as irrigated agriculture or recreation) influences land cover.

Land Degradation Neutrality

 A state whereby the amount and quality of land resources, necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security, remains stable or increases within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems

Land development

The process of making undeveloped land ready for development through the provision of utilities, services and access.

Land development cost

The cost of land development mentioned above. Land ownership
The exclusive right of control and possession of a parcel of land.
Land subdivision The division of land in blocks, lots and laying out of streets.

Land tenancy

The temporary holding or mode of holding a parcel of land of another.

Land use

A broad term used to classify land according to present use and according to the suitability for future users, that is for housing or residential, open spaces and parks, commercial and industrial.

Land utilisation

A qualification of the land around a dwelling unit in relation to user, physical controls and responsibility.

Public - (street, walkways and open spaces);. User can be anyone and unlimited, physical controls are minimum and responsibility for maintenance is on public sector.

Semi- Public - (open spaces or parks, playgrounds and schools); User is unlimited groups of people, physical controls - partial or complete and responsibility is on public sector as well as the user.

Private - (dwellings, lots); user is basically the owner or tenant or squatter, complete physical controls, and responsibility is on the user.

Semi-private - (cluster courts); user are the group of owners and or tenants, physical controls partial or complete and responsibility is on the user.

Land value

The value of land in an urban area depends primarily on its location and on the use to which it might be put. The value of property is the value, which is estimated on the basis of actual yearly sales and ………..

LandfillDepositions of refuse on land with cover on a weekly or more frequent basis so that no nuisance or insult to the environment results.



They are a type of point references in a city or locality. They are external and the observer does not have to enter within them. They are usually a rather simply defined physical object building, sign, store or mountain. Their use involves the singling out of an element from a host of possibilities.


 A crop cultivator or animal breed that evolved with and has been genetically improved by traditional agriculturists, but has not been influenced by modern breeding practices.

Landscape change

 The dynamic process through which the landscape is transformed either intentionally or unintentionally.

Landscape fragmentation

 The decrease of patch area and patch connectivity in a landscape.

Landscape structure

 Landscape structure/pattern: The spatial arrangement of the various natural and human areas and uses.

Landuse planning

It is concerned with the allocation, intensity, amount and land development required for various space using functions of the city life.


The plan of a design or arrangement of something that is laid out on a base.

Level of services

It is a qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream and their perception by drivers or passengers. Six levels of service are recognized commonly designated from A to F where A represents the best operating condition (i.e. free flow) and F is the worst (i.e. forced flow).


Listing of Built Heritage by INTACH Grade I

 Listing of Built Heritage by INTACH Grade I

This category comprises buildings and precincts of national and historic importance and are under the protection of the ASI or State Department of Archaeology.

Buildings/ properties in this category are of exceptional national/ regional importance with unique features and are the prime landmarks of a city/ town. These buildings need to be kept under permanent state of preservation, and can be recommended for protection. Interventions in such structures are to be closely monitored. 

Listing of Built Heritage by INTACH Grade II

  Listing of Built Heritage by INTACH Grade II

This category comprises buildings of local importance, possessing special architectural or historical value. These buildings form local landmarks contributing to the image and identity of the city.

Listing of Built Heritage by INTACH Grade III

 Listing of Built Heritage by INTACH Grade III

This category comprises buildings/ precincts, which normally do not qualify for permanent retention, but are nevertheless of some historical or architectural importance and contribute to determining the character of the locality.


A person who can be both read and write with understanding in any language is taken for the purpose of census. A person, who can merely read but cannot write, is not a literate. It is not necessary that a person who is literate should have received any formal education or should have passed any minimum educational standard. According to 1991 census, children of age 6 years or less have been considered
as illiterates even if the child was going to school and might have picked up reading and writing a few words.


A person who can both read and write with understanding in any language is taken for the purpose of census. A person, who can merely read but cannot write, is not literate. It is not necessary that a person who is literate should have received any formal education or should have passed any minimum educational standard. According to 1991 census children of age of 6 years or less have been considered as illiterates even if the child was going to school and might have picked up reading and writing a few words.

Local Area Plan

To detail the sub-city landuse plan and integration with urban infrastructure, mobility and services.

Local government

It is that part of the government of nation which deals mainly with matters concerning the inhabitants of particular …………

Local shopping centre

A group of shops (not exceeding 75 in numbers) is serving a population of 15,000 persons.

Local street

A local street is one primarily intended for access to residence, business or other abutting property.


The situation or way in which something (the site) is placed in relation to its surroundings (the urban context).

Main Workers

Are those who had worked for the major part of the year preceding the date of enumeration i.e. those
who were engaged in any economically productive activity for 183 days or six months during the year.

ManagementIt is the coordination of an organised effort to attain specific goals or objectives.

Marginal worker

Workers, who work during any time in the year preceding the enumeration but do not work for a major part of the year i.e those who worked for less than 183 days or six months.

Marginal workers

Are those who work during any time in the year preceding the enumeration but did not work for a major part of the year i.e those who worked for less than 183 days or six months.

Master Plan

A comprehensive long range plan intended to guide the growth and development of a city, town or region expressing official contemplation on the course its transportation, housing and community facilities should take and making proposals for industrial settlement, commence, population distribution and other aspects of growth and development. It is usually accompanied by drawings, explanatory data and prefatory apologia explaining its limitations. Few aspects of the city process are aroused for controversy than the master plan. Conceptions of what it should be to run the gamut for the future down to the simple zoning scheme. No master plan can fulfill the specification in the face of recurring changes caused by industrialisation, population shift, traffic increase, urbanisation and periodic political undulations.


 A city with a population of 10 million or more.


 An urban agglomeration of over 20 million people


Is an Urban conurbation having a population of one million and above with a cosmopolitan character and administered by one or more municipal corporation or local bodies.

Metropolitan Village

 A dormitory settlement within commuting distance of an urban workplace and in which more than 20 percent of the resident population are employed in town or cities.


 A microclimate is  climate in a small area that varies significantly from the overall climate of  a region. Microclimate are formed by nature or manmade geography and topography, such as hills, buildings, and the presence and absence of trees and cagetation.


The climate of the land surface, extending no more than a few meters above ground and strongly influenced by its material, morphological and organic components.


  The removal of minerals (like coal , gold, or silver) from the ground.

Modular housing

Factory produced units used alone or in combination with other units after it is erected at a building site.


A document that pledges the buyer's property as security against a loan.

Municipal Corporation

 Municipal Corporation is a local government body that administers a city of population 10,00,000 or more. Under the panchayati raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. The largest Municipal Corporations in India currently are Mumbai, followed by Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai,Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Surat and Pune. The Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world outside UK

Nagar Palika

 Nagar Palika or Municipality or Nagar Nigam is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously nagar palikas were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000 so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Nagar palika were reclassified as Nagar palika even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Nagar palika. Nagar palikas are also a form of local self-government, entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined and guided upon by the Constitutional (74th Amendment)Act,1992.

National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)

National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment. The EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six criteria pollutants: sulfur dioxide (S02), particulates (PM2.5/PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and lead (Pb). Periodically, the standards are reviewed and may 

National Highway

National Highways are the important or main highways running through the length and breadth of the country, connecting ports, highways and capitals of states and including roads of strategic and military value.


Natural resources

Any portion of natural environment - soil, water, rangeland, forest, wildlife, minerals or human population or that man can utilise to promote his welfare.



 Clusters of closely related species and subspecies that have evolved relatively recently.

Net ecosystem production NEPThe change in the biomass of an ecosystem per unit time, equivalent to net primary productivity minus losses due to grazing by herbivores.


Net residential density

It is calculated by taking the total resident population over the area comprising only of land under residential use, access roads and tot-lots.

New urbanism

 A broad school of urban design that advocates a return to 'traditional' human-scale neighborhood development, livable communities, transit-oriented development and smart growth instead of low-density car-oriented urban development.


They are the points, strategic spots in a city into which are the intensive foci to and from which he is travelling. They may be primarily junctions, places of a break in transportation, a crossing or convergence of paths, moments of shift from one structure to another, or the nodes may be simply concentrations, which gain their importance from being the condensation of some use of physical character as a street corner hangout or an enclosed square.

Non renewable resources

Resources which are used and not replaced i.e. all non-energy mineral resources and mineral energy resources.


Non- workers

were those who had not worked any time at all in the year preceding the date of enumeration

Non-confirming landuse

A type of zoning variance where a parcel of land may be given an exception from current zoning ordinances due to improvements made by a prior owner or before the current zoning ordinances made the desired use non-conforming under local law.

Occupancy rate

It is defined as the number of persons per habitable room (Government of India).

Origin and destination surveyA survey to determine the origin and destination of journeys.


Parapatric Speciation

 Speciation in which the new species forms from a population contiguous with the ancestral species' geographical range.


A premise used for recreational leisure activity. It may have on it related landscaping, parking facility, public toilet, fencing etc. It will include synonyms like lawn, open space, green etc.


Parking accumulationThe total number of vehicles parked in an area at a specified time.


Parking duration

The length of time spent in a parking space.


Parking Index

Percentage of the theoretically available number of parking bays actually occupied by parked vehicles.


Parking turnoverRate of the usage of available parking space.


Parking volume

The number of vehicles parked in a particular area over a given period of time. It is usually measured in vehicles per day.


Passenger Car Unit PCU

To express capacity of roads, the term passenger car unit is used. The basic consideration behind this practice is that different types of vehicles offer different degrees of interference to other traffic and it is necessary to bring all types to a common unit. The common unit adopted is called 'passenger car unit'.


 A relatively homogenous area that differs from its surroundings.

Peak hour factor

It is defined as the traffic volume during peak hour expressed as a percentage of the ADT.

Peripheral urbanization

 A model that employs a political economy perspective to provide a generalized description of the impact of global capitalism on national urban systems in the Third World. The expansion of capitalism into peripheral areas is seen to generate a strong process of urbanization.

Perspective Plan

To develop vision and provide a policy framework for urban & regional development and further detailing.


It is defined as an organized process by which a society achieves its development goals. In other words, it means to achieve development i.e. betterment of quality of life or Planning is the establishment of goals, policies and procedures for social or economic units, i.e. city.

Planning and development authorities

An agency for plan preparation, plan approval, plan enforcement and plan implementation. It also means
a Regional Planning and Development Authority, Metropolitan Planning and Development Authority or an Area Planning and Development Authority constituted under the Social planning and Development Act. It seeks to achieve expanding opportunities for raising the standards of life, of the whole population through deliberate steps initiated by the government, influencing both economic activity and physical environment when necessary to achieve the end.

Plant communityA group of plants which when form a distinct combination of species in the landscape and which interact with each other.



A premise used for outdoor games. It may have on it landscaping, parking facilities, public toilets etc.


An open space generally found in an urban environment that serves as a point of assembly, as a physical link between buildings and as a stage for the display of sculptures.



The potion of a structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, immediately above the ground.

Plot or lot

A measured parcel of land having fixed boundaries and access to public circulation.


The intended purposes, mechanisms and guidelines by which programmes are carried out. Policies are usually long range commitments for which immediate programmes can vary gently.


Presence of any substance in air or water in such a concentration that may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or to the air or water itself could be referred to as pollution.


Population density

The ratio between total population to the total area of a city or region or a given. It is expressed in persons per acre or hectare.

Post-industrial city

 A city with an employment profile that exhibits growth of the quaternary sector (i.e. the profes sions, management, administration and skilled technical areas) and a declining manufacturing work force. The dual labour market of a service economy contributes to income Inequality and social polarisation in a city geared to middle-class consumption.

Practical Capacity

The maximum number of vehicles that can pass during one hour without the traffic density being so great as to cause unreasonable delay, hazard under prevailing roadway and traffic condition.


Preservation means maintaining the fabric (all the physical material) of a place in the existing state and retarding deterioration.

Protected area

It means any archeological site or remains, which is declared by the Central Government to be of
national importance.


Protected forest

Those forest areas which are to be conserved to attain physical and climatic balance of the country. Special license for particular activities have to be procured.


Public convenience

It is basically a derivative of the locational arrangement of land use and the relationship that the each functional use bears to every other one.

Public transportation system

These are modes of passenger transport that are open that are open for public use.

Public utilities

Comprises all those services of necessity which are required in the interest of health and convenience of the population. They include system of public transport, water supply, sewerage, storm water drainage, gas, electricity, street lighting, telephones, fire protection and such other services.


Permanent when used to describe a structure. Made of brick and mortar or stone as compared to a 'kuccha' structure made of bamboo or mud. It is substantial, permanent, solidly built, baked, strong, solid, firm, lasting and permanent.



 RADPFI: Rural Area Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (RADPFI) Guidelines 

Rainwater harvesting

Water in the atmosphere can be tapped through the condensation of mist or air moisture of through ran-catchment. The former sources have proved feasible where other sources are not available. The interception of rainwater before it reaches the ground has the advantage that the water may collect with minimum contamination. The amount of water, which can be collected, is determined by the amount of rainfall and the size of the collection area. Rainwater can be harvested on roof or ground. Contamination with bird droppings, dust and other deposits on the roof can be overcome by the installation of simple devices to separate the first flush of water from remainder to be stored. Ground catchments are ideal for collecting surface run-off which require a degree of protection to prevent gross pollution of the water.


Rate of flow

It represents the number of vehicles passing a point during a time interval less than one hour but expressed as an equivalent hourly rate.

Recalcitrant Seed

 Seed that does not survive drying and freezing.


This refers to the increase in the floor space area of a portion to accommodate additional population for residential purposes or other urban activities as a part of the urban redevelopment or renewal
programmes for the city or the area. Often the process is applied to under-utilised segments of the inner city to limit the horizontal expansion of the city and maximise the utlisation of available infrastructure.


Region is a continuos and localise intermediate area between national and urban lands. An area including one or more countries which contain certain geographical, economic and social characteristics in common.


Regional Plan

To identify the region and regional resources for development within which settlement (urban and rural) plan to be prepared and regulated by District planning committee.

Regional PlanningIt is the process of formulation and clarifying social objectives in the ordering of activities in supra-urban space.


Remote sensing

Remote sensing: Detection or measurement of a property of a medium like atmosphere such as temperature, concentration of pollutants, etc. For example, using Radar, rain can be detected or using Laser beam, concentration of pollutants can be measured along the path of the beam by analysing the scattered radiation from the beam. This is in contrast to in situ sampling or measurement where the sensor measures the property in the immediate vicinity of the sensor.

Renewable resourcesResources that are replenished through relatively rapid natural cycles.


Renewable Water

 The surface water runoff from local precipitation, the inflow from the other regions and the groundwater recharge that replenishes aquifers.

Reserved forest

Those forest areas, which are to be censured to attain physical and climatic balance of the country. No permission for any activities are allowed there



Includes the use for human habitation of any land or buildings or part thereof including gardens, grounds, garrage, stables and out-houses if any, appertaining to such building.

Residential density

Residential or housing density is the variously expressed in numbers of dwellings, households, habitable rooms or persons per acre or hectare.

Residential flatResidential accommodation for one family (one household) which may occur as part of group housing or independently.


Resilient City

 A Resilient City is one that has developed capacities to help absorb future shocks and stresses to its social, economic, and technical systems and infrastructures so as to still be able to maintain essentially the same functions, structures, systems, and identity.

Resilient city

Resilient cities are cities that have the ability to absorb, recover and prepare for future shocks (economic, environmental, social & institutional). Resilient citiespromote sustainable development, well-being and inclusive growth. The OECD is investigating how citiescan increase their resilience.


That upon which one relies for aid, support or supply/ means to attain given ends of the capacity to take advantage of opportunities or to extricate oneself from difficulties.



The process of restoration is a highly specialized operation. Its aim is to preserve and reveal the aesthetic and historic value of the monument and based on respect for original material and authentic documents.


This refers to the development process applied to alter the existing structure of an area for improved functional efficiency and / or image. The restructuring process may not necessarily demand extensive interventions to alter the structure, but generally involves sensitive relocation of uses and reorientation of functional networks within and outside the area.

Retail Warehouse Park

An organized development of at least three retail warehouse (defined as single-storey retail units of at least 10,000 sq. ft. or 930 sq. m) totaling at least 50,000 sq. ft. (46,000 sq. m) of gross lettable area.

Ribbon Development

The process of urban sprawl along the main roads leading from a built-up area. Within urban areas the term refers to commercials strips along roads.

Ridge and Furrow Irrigation

 In this disposal method, pretreated septage is applied directly to furrows or to row crops that will not be directly consumed by humans. This is used for relatively level land, usually for slopes in the ranges of 0.5 to 1.5%.

Right of way

It is the width of the land secured and preserved for the public road purposes. It should be adequate to accommodate all the elements that make up the cross-section of the highway and may reasonably provide for future development.



 the chance of injury or loss as defined as a measure of the probability [likelihood] and severity of an adverse effect to health, property, the environment, or other things of value.

Risk analysis

 the systematic use of information to identify hazards and to estimate the chance for and severity of, injury or loss to individuals or populations, property, the environment, or other things of value.

Road Pricing

A strategy to relieve traffic congestion which views the problem as a market failure that can be addressed by increasing the price motorists pay for the use of road space which is in short supply.

Road Street

Any highway, street, lane, pathway, alley, stairway, passageway, carriage-way, footway, square, place or bridge, a thoroughfare or not, over which the public have a right of passage or access or have passed uninterruptedly for a specified period, whether existing or proposed in any scheme, and includes and all bunds, channel, ditches, storm water drains, culverts, sidewalks, traffic islands, roadside trees and hedges, retaining walls, fences, barriers and railings within the street lines.

Running speed

It is the average speed maintained by a vehicle over a given course while the vehicle is in motion i.e running time.


A rural region, with a population density equal to or above the urban threshold, created by a process o in situ population growth or ‘urbanization by implosion’, and that represents a hybrid settlement system that is spatially urban but economically, socially and institutionally agrarian.

Rural-urban Continuum

A continuous gradation of ways of life between the two poles of truly rural community and truy urban society. The concept has been used as a theory of social change which emphasizes the transformations in ways of life from one pole to the others.


 The R-value is a measure of thermal resistance used in the building and construction industry. Under uniform conditions it is the ratio of the temperature difference across an insulator and the heat flux (heat transfer per unit area per unit time, ) through it or . The R-value being discussed is the unit thermal resistance. This is used for a unit value of any particular material. It is expressed as the thickness of the material divided by the thermal conductivity.  The higher the number, the better the building insulation's effectiveness. R-value is the reciprocal of U-factor.

Screen line

An imaginary line drawn across part of a traffic study area, across which the total number of movements of any particular kind are determined, in order to check the estimated traffic flows across same line.


Sea levelThe mean surface elevation of the sea, normally excluding transient changes induced by tides, atmospheric pressure, upwelling and water influx.

Secondary work

Any other work or secondary work was reckoned only if the person was engaged in some economically productive work. Workers could be fulltime workers or seasonal workers or marginal workers.

Sectoral plan

It deals individually with the functional sectors of economic and social activities such as agriculture, health, industry, education and transportation. In such a plan, existing facilities in each sector, their capacity and use, travel, behavior, locational preference and numerous other kinds of information are considered specifically.

Semi detached building

A building detached on three sides with open spaces.


Semi Pucca

A semi-pucca structure is one which could not treated as wholly pucca or wholly kutcha.

Sensitive groups

 Sensitive groups (also called at-risk populations) - A term used for a category of persons at increased risk of experiencing adverse health effects related to air pollution exposures. These groups can be at increased risk due to intrinsic factors (biological), extrinsic factors (external, non-biological), higher exposure, and/or increased dose at a given concentration. The severity of the health effects that these groups experience may be much greater than in the general population.

Service lanes

Service lanes are roads provided adjacent to major roads on both sides. They will be connected with the major road once in a kilometer or so. This is to control the access to major roads so that thorough traffic is not disturbed much.

Set back line

A line usually parallel to the plot boundaries or centre line of a road and laid down in each case by the authority or as per recommendations of the Master or Zonal Plan, beyond which nothing can be constructed toward the plot boundaries, excepting with the permission of the authority


An establishment having specific location and occupying fixed and definite positions on the earth surface.


The effluent in a sewer network.

SewerThe conduit in a subterranean network used to carry off water and waste matter.


Sewerage system

It is the network system of sewers in a city or town or locality.


Woody, semi woody or herbaceous perennial plants, branches arise from the base of the plants and grow upto a height of about 0.5 to 4 mts. The plants are usually small and straight bushes like but some are recumbent or prostrate.


Woody, semi woody or herbaceous perennial plants, branches arise from the base of the plants and grow upto a height of about 0.5 to 4 mts. The plants are usually small and straight bushes like but some are recumbent or prostrate.


Sibling Species

 species so similar to each other as to be difficult to distinguish by human observer.


Land (that could be) made suitable for building purposes by dividing into lots, laying out streets and providing facilities.

Site and services

The subdivision of urban land and the provision of services for residential use and complimentary commercial use. Site and services projects are aimed to improve the housing conditions of the low income groups of the population by providing (a) Site : the access to a piece of land where people can build their own dwelling. (b) Services : the opportunity of access to employment, utilities, service and community facilities, financing and communications.



It is the population and physical extent of a city.

Sky Condition

 Sky Condition are usually described in terms of presence or absence of Clouds.

Sky View Factor

 Area of the sky that can be seen from a point on a surface.


An area in which the narrowness, closeness, and bad arrangement or design, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation facilities, or any combination of this factors are detrimental to safety, health or morals.


Sodium adsorption ratio

A measure of soil alkalinity, calculated by dividing the content of exchangeable sodium by the square root of the sum of exchangeable calcium and magnesium.


Soil texture

The relative proportions of sand (2.0 - 0.05 mm diameter), silt (0.05 - 0.002mm) and clay (<0.002 mm) in soil.


Solar Access

 Its the amount of a sites exposure to the sun during a given period. 

Solar Altitude AngleThe vertical angle at the point of observation between the horizon plane and the line connecting the sun with the observer.


Solar Azimuth Angle

The angle at the point of observation measured on a horizontal plane between the northerly direction and a point on the horizontal circle where it is intersected by the arc vertical circle, going through the zenith and the sun's position.


Solar Chart

A circular diagram prepared individually for each geographical latitude showing the path of the sun projected on a plane in a form which enables the altitude and azimuth to be read off directly for the month, date and time required.

Solar Envelope

The maximum volume of an object, typically a building, such that it will not cast a shadow upon a given space at a tool in urban planning to ensure solar access.

Solar Rights of A Building or an Urban Space

A legal guarantee of exposure to direct sunlight in a predetermined period, typically several hours each day during winter.

Space Mean speed

It is the average of the speed measurements at an instant of time over a space.


The distance between successive vehicles in a traffic stream measured form front bumper .

Special purpose Plan

To identify the needs of the special areas which require special plan within the framework of the development plan.


Speed is the rate of movement of traffic or a specified component of traffic and is expressed in metric unit or kilometer per hour.


Spray Irrigation

 Pre-treated septage is pumped at 80 to 100 psi through nozzles and sprayed directly onto the land. spray irrigation can be used on steep or rough land and minimizes disturbances to the soil by trucks.

State Highway

They are the other main trunk or arterial roads of a state, connecting up with national headquarters and important cities within the state.

Street LightingIllumination to improve vision at night for security and for the extension of activities


Sub Arterial street

Provide access to adjoining areas and are used for parking, loading, unloading , are usually restricted and regulated.

Subsistence Agriculture

 Farming at a level at which only enough food is produced to meet immediate local needs.


Suburb are the compactly developed or developing areas surrounding the central city in a metropolitan area. There is normally no identifiable boundary between city and suburb, the city merges gradually into the suburb without an appreciable break in physical aspects.


Drainage or refuge especially from a house, farm, yard or street


SullageDrainage or refuge especially from a house, farm, yard or street


Sustainable Development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromissing the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.


It is a set of interconnected part or elements having a regularity or relationship and interdependency between each other. The interdependency between each other. The functioning of the whole complex is called system.

Technological DevelopmentIt is the improvement and application in technical process that increase the productivity of machine and eliminate the manual operation done by the order or absolute machines.


Time Mean Speed

It is the average of the speed measurements at one point in space over a period of time.



The configuration of a (land) surface including its relief and the position of its natural and man made features

Tot lot

The green areas which are integrated in a residential development with a view to provide safe and supervised play area for 4 year age group.

Total Environmental Value

 It is a function of Primary value and total economic value.

Traffic Volume

It is the actual number of vehicles observed or predicted to be passing a point during a given time interval.


Transit Oriented Development

Transit Oriented DevelopmentTransit Oriented Development is a compact & integrated development, which should be incorporated in Compact Cities. It is defined as, “any development, macro or micro that is focused around a transit node, and facilitates and complete ease of access to the transit facility, thereby inducing people to prefer to walk and use public transportation over personal modes of transport.


Woody plant with a spreading crown, whose single trunk exceeds diameter of 15cm and attains a height of more than 4m.



A one -way movement between a point of origin and a point of destination.


Type of structure Pucca

A pucca structure is one whose walls and roofs are at least made of pucca materials such as cement , concrete, oven burnt bricks, stone and stone blocks, junk board, titles, timber, galvanized or corrugated iron sheets, asbestos, cement sheets etc.


 The U-factor or "U-value", is the overall heat transfer coefficient that describes how well a building element conducts heat or the rate of transfer of heat (in watts) through one square metre of a structure divided by the difference in temperature across the structure. The elements are commonly assemblies of many layers of components such as those that make up walls/floors/roofs etc. It measures the rate of heat transfer through a building element over a given area under standardised conditions. The usual standard is at a temperature gradient of 24 °C (75 °F), at 50% humidity with no wind (a smaller U-factor is better at reducing heat transfer). It is expressed in watts per metres squared kelvin, or W/m²K. This means that the higher the U value the worse the thermal performance of the building envelope. A low U value usually indicates high levels of insulation. They are useful as it is a way of predicting the composite behaviour of an entire building element rather than relying on the properties of individual materials.

Unidirectional Externality

 These are externalities in which the external costs or benefits of the resource use are 'one way'.

Urban Airshed Model (UAM):

 Urban Airshed Model (UAM): A three-dimensional grid-based photochemical computer model of the production of ozone from precursors (VOCs and NOx) and the dispersion of air pollution in a specific geographic area over a period of one or two days.

Urban biodiversity

Urban biodiversity is the variety and richness of living things, including genetic, species and habitat diversity found in and on the edge of cities.

Urban compaction

The process that aims to increase built area and residential population densities; to intensify urban economic, social and cultural activities and to manipulate urban size, form and structure and settlement systems in search of the environmental, social and global sustainability benefits that can be derived from concentration of urban functions.

Urban Fabric

This refers to the manner in which urban tissues, either uniform or diverse in nature are knitted together with the urban structure to form an entity.

Urban Fabric

 Urban fabric is the physical structure of an urban area.

Urban Form

 Urban Form means the physical form of an urban area consisting of street patterns, building sizes and shapes, architecture, and density.

Urban Form

It is the collective three dimensional expression of an urban area as represented by their relationship to each other. The term built would refer to buildings, city wall, vertical towers, flyovers etc, while open spaces would include streets, courtyards, roads, parks, tot-lots, river beds etc. Size shape, grain and texture of an area are some of the characteristics which determine the nature of urban form.

Urban Heat Island

 Urban areas being warmer then the surrounding rural area. Ordinarily a nocturnal phenomenon.

Urban Heat Island Effect

 The Urban Heat Island Effect is a measurable increase in ambient urban air temperatures resulting from the replacement of vegetation with buildings, roads and other heat absorbing infrastructure. The heat Island effect can result in significant temperature differences between urban and rural areas.  

Urban Morphology

The three dimensional form of a group of building and the spaces they create. 

Urban Open Spaces

Open spaces in urban areas used for performing different outdoor activities like movement, recreation, relaxation, play etc. 

Urban renewal plan

A measure of the balance between shear stress and shear strength in a slope; a state of limiting equilibrium exits when shearing forces equal resisting forces in a slope and F=1


Urban resilience

A city’s ability to cope with, and adapt to, natural disasters and changing circumstances.

Urban Street Canyon

 The space delimited by the street and the facades of the building outdoor activities along the street.


A process of migration of people that results in population increase in cities with increased urban area and population density. 



Urban and Regional Development Plans Formulation and Implementation (URDPFI)

V(a)Household Industry

Is an industry conducted by the household himself/herself and or members of the household at home or within the village in rural areas and only within the precincts of the house where the household lived in urban areas. A household industry is one that is engaged in production, processing, servicing, repairing or making and selling(but not merely selling) of goods.

Ventilation Coefficient

 Ventilation Coefficient - It is defined as a product of mixing height and average wind speed.


Is an inhabited place larger than a hamlet and smaller than a town, having a primary means of production, cohesive community, simple organisation and elementary level of amenities facilities and services

Volatile organic compound:

 Volatile organic compound:

An organic compound (meaning a chemical combination of carbon and other elements, whether natural or manmade) which is volatile, meaning it readily produces vapors at room temperature. Many VOCs react in the atmosphere with nitrogen oxides in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone. Methane and other compounds determined by EPA to have negligible photochemical reactivity are excluded from the EPA definition of VOCs. Examples of VOCs include gasoline fumes and solvents from oil-based paints.


Is defined as participation in any economically productive activity. Such participation was physical or mental in nature. Work involved not only actual work but also effective supervision and direction or work.
It also included unpaid work on farm or in family enterprise. According to this definition, the entire population has been classified into three main categories i.e. Main workers, Marginal workers and Non- workers.