A practice vehemently hated by many architects, it mostly consists of badly hiding a glass box behind a skinned heritage building.

Factor of Safety

Farm Tractor and Wagon Spreading

 Liquid septage or septage solids are transferred to farm equipment for spreading. This allows for application of liquid or solid septage. The septage must be incorporated into the soil within 6 hours, if lime stabilization has not been done.

Floor area ratio

Total floor area of building. Area of the plot.

Floor Area Ratio FAR

The quotient obtained by dividing the total covered area (plinth area) on al the floors divided by the area1790 of the area of the plot and multiplied by 100.
FAR = Floor x 100 x Plot Area


Floor Space Index FSIFSI is the same as FAR but expressed in units and not as %.


It is the number of vehicles passing a specified point during a stated period of time, which is usually expressed in vehicles per hour.

Food security

Food security: Food produced in sufficient quantity to meet the full requirements of all people i.e. total global food supply equals the total global demand. For households it is the ability to purchase or produce the food they need for a healthy and active life (disposable income is a crucial issue). Women are typically gatekeepers of household food security. For national food security, the focus is on sufficient food for all people in a nation and it entails a combination of national production, imports and exports. Food security always has components of production, access and utilization. 


The term fringe suggests a borderline case between the rural and urban, and actually lies on the periphery of urban areas, surrounding it and distinguished it from the truly countryside.

Fringe Belt

 A zone of mixed land uses at the edge of a built-up area.


FSSM : Faecal Sludge and Septage Management

Functional Region

It is a geographical area, which displays a certain functional coherence such as cities, towns and village, which are functionally related.

Fused grid

 A type of street network pattern that looks like an IQ test.